JUDAH BAR EZEKIEL

JUDAH BAR EZEKIEL
JUDAH BAR EZEKIEL (d. 299), Babylonian amora, founder of the academy at pumbedita . Judah's father was a famous amora and "wonder worker" (see Kid. 32a, 33b; TJ, Ta'an 1:3, 64b). Judah's brother was the amora Rami b. Ezekiel, who appears to have gone to Ereẓ Israel and returned to Babylonia (Ket. 21a; Kid. 32a; Ḥul. 44a, etc.). According to the Talmud "on the day R. Judah ha-Nasi passed away … Judah (b. Ezekiel) was born," and on his deathbed Judah ha-Nasi said "today R. Judah is born in Babylonia" (Kid. 72a–b; cf. Guttmann, in: HUCA, 25 (1954), 241ff. for a discussion of the date on which this took place). Judah was a pupil first of Rav in Sura, then of R. Assi of Huzal, and finally of samuel in Nehardea, and he quotes many halakhot in their names (see Suk. 9a; BB 139b; Yev. 17a and Rashi ibid.; Av. Zar. 16b and Rashi ibid.). Notwithstanding Judah's boundless esteem for Samuel, he once directed an admonishing remark at him (see Shab. 55a), and in several instances took issue with him (Ber. 36a). Samuel's affectionate nickname for his pupil, "Shinena" (ibid.; Shab. 7a, 152a) is generally taken to mean "sharp in talmudic knowledge," although some interpret it as "bigtoothed" (Arukh, s.v. shen 2). So great was Samuel's admiration for his pupil that he said of him, "he is not of woman born" (Nid. 13a). After the destruction of Nehardea by papa b. Neẓer in 259, part of the academy of Nehardea moved to Pumbedita, where Judah became its head (Git. 60b and Rashi ibid.). Pumbedita was considered the heir to Nehardea, in that it continued the tradition of being a purely "Babylonian academy," as opposed to sura , where the Palestinian influence – due to Rav's way of learning – remained very strong. However, throughout the lifetime of Huna, Sura remained the main center of learning. Only after Huna passed away in 297 did Pumbedita come to the foreground, where indeed it remained for the next 800 years. The main subject of study there was the order nezikin (Ber. 20a), the importance of which was emphasized by Judah (BK 30a). Judah's halakhah is extensively quoted in both the Babylonian and the Jerusalem Talmuds.   His main disputant is Huna, and their discussions occupy a prominent place in the Babylonian Talmud. Judah was highly esteemed by the sages of his day, among them R. NaḤman (see Kid. 70a–b), and R. Eleazar "the master from Palestine" and Ulla, who were loath to give decisions in Pumbedita (Nid. 20b). Among his prominent pupils were Kahana and Joseph (Yev. 17a), Zeira (Ber. 39a) and Abba (Ḥul. 19b). Judah was opposed to returning from Babylonia to Ereẓ Israel before the coming of the Redeemer (Ket. 110b–111a). When Zeira and Abba decided to do this, they had to do it clandestinely without his knowledge (ibid.; Ber. 24b). Nevertheless his devotion to Ereẓ Israel is attested (see Ber. 43a). He was accustomed to speak Hebrew, even in daily conversations with his servant (Shab. 41a). He considered the use of Hebrew mandatory for prayer and enjoined the Aramaic-speaking Jews of Babylonia, "Never should a person plead his needs in Aramaic" (Shab. 12b; see however Sot. 33a). Judah was noted for his saintliness and piety (Ḥag. 15b; Nid. 13a), and in consequence wonderful powers were popularly ascribed to him. For example, it is stated that in times of drought he had but to remove one shoe (an indication that he was about to undertake a fast) and rain would immediately begin to fall (see Ber. 20a; Ta'an. 24b; Sanh. 106b). Judah was distinguished by the firmness of his convictions and his not indulging anyone (MK 17a; Kid. 70a–b). The amora Isaac b. Judah was his son (Yev. 63b; Kid. 71b). When, according to legend, Joseph, the son of R. Joshua b. Levi, ascended to heaven and returned, and was asked by his father what he had seen, he replied, "A world upside down; the exalted below and the lowly above" (BB 10b). This statement is interpreted by geonic tradition to refer to the fact that he saw Samuel sitting at the feet of his pupil Judah, who was thus honored because he had not refrained from admonishing his master (Arukh, s.v. neged 1; Tos. to BB 10b). -BIBLIOGRAPHY: B.M. Lewin (ed.), Iggeret R. Sherira Ga'on (1921), 82–85; Neusner, Babylonia, 2–3 (1966–68), index; J. Heilprin, Seder ha-Dorot, pt. 2, Seder Tanna'im ve-Amora'im (Warsaw, 1905), 179–81; Frankel, Mevo, 91a; Hyman, Todedot, 542–52; Ḥ. Albeck, Mavo la-Talmudim (1969), 199–201. (Zvi Kaplan)

Encyclopedia Judaica. 1971.

Игры ⚽ Нужен реферат?

Look at other dictionaries:

  • Judah bar Ezekiel — (d. 299)    Babylonian amora. He was the founder of the academy at Pumbedita, and was an authority on halakhah. His teachings are extensively quoted in the Babylonian and Jerusalem Talmuds …   Dictionary of Jewish Biography

  • Ezekiel Isaac Malekar — is the head of the Jewish community in New Delhi, India. He is the Honorary Secretary and rabbi of the Judah Hyam Synagogue at the corner of Humayun road, where he works voluntarily [http://www.hinduonnet.com/thehindu/mp/2003/01/09/stories/2003010… …   Wikipedia

  • Rabbah bar Nahmani (Rabbah) — (c. 270 330)    Babylonian amora. He studied under Huna at Sura and Judah bar Ezekiel at Pumbedita. Known for his interpretation of the Mishnah, he was knowl edgeable about ritual purity. He was nicknamed Oker Harim ( uprooter of mountains )… …   Dictionary of Jewish Biography

  • Hiyya bar Abba — For the Amora sage of the Land of Israel, of the 1st Amora Generation, see Rabbi Hiyya (Hiyya the Great). For the Amora sage of Babylon, of the 2nd and 3d Amora Generation, and Dean of the Pumbedita Academy, see Huna b. Hiyya. Hiyya bar Abba or… …   Wikipedia

  • Rav Nachman bar Yitzchak — You might be looking for Nachman bar Huna or Nachman bar Yaakov. Rabbinical Eras Chazal Zugot Tannaim Amoraim Savoraim Geonim Rishonim Acharonim Rav Nachman bar Yitzchak or Rabh Naħman bar Yişħaq in actual Talmudic and Classical Hebrew (died 356) …   Wikipedia

  • ISAAC BAR RAV JUDAH — (end of the third and beginning of the fourth century), Babylonian amora. Isaac was the son of judah b. ezekiel , head of the academy of Pumbedita. He studied under his father (Shab. 35b; Pes. 104b; et al.) and was already a distinguished scholar …   Encyclopedia of Judaism

  • RABBAH BAR NAḤAMANI — (c. 270–330; d. 321/22 according to Iggeret R. Sherira Ga on, ed. by B.M. Lewin (1921), 87; according to Hyman c. 260–340), Babylonian amora. Rabbah was the scion of a priestly family, which traced its lineage to the high priest Eli (RH 18a). He… …   Encyclopedia of Judaism

  • Rabbah bar Nahmani — Rabbah bar Nachmani (Hebrew: רבה בר נחמני) (c. 270 c. 330) was a Jewish Talmudist known as an amora, who lived in Babylonia, known throughout the Talmud simply as Rabbah.Rabbah was born into a priestly family, and studied at both the academies in …   Wikipedia

  • History of ancient Israel and Judah — Further information: History of Palestine, Pre history of the Southern Levant, History of the Southern Levant, and History of the Levant The Iron Age kingdom of Israel (blue) and kingdom of Judah (tan), with their neighbours… …   Wikipedia

  • Henry Judah — (1808 ndash; February 10 1883), also known as Henry Hague Judah, was a lawyer and political figure in Canada East. Judah was among the first Jews to become attorneys in early Canada; the first was a distant cousin, Aaron Ezekiel Hart, called to… …   Wikipedia

Share the article and excerpts

Direct link
Do a right-click on the link above
and select “Copy Link”